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Investigating & Recovering Hidden Money & Other Assets

Part 3: An Asset Search Over Terrorism & Airbus Aircraft

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Hidden Money

Iran & Qatar sit on the largest natural gas field in the world.  As a consequence of this, Iran may have a discreet & shared income with Qatar.

Part 1 &/or Part 2 of this post described recent efforts by the judgment creditors in Havlish v. bin Laden to collect on their judgment against Iran for more than $1.3 billion dollars.  The judgment creditors sought to attach monies allegedly connected to a deal to purchase Airbus aircraft for Iran’s Mahan Air.  The judgment creditors also issued subpoenas to U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control.  The subpoenas were about assets related to Iran and various terrorist groups.

How else might the judgment creditors proceed with their asset search & collect on their judgment against Iran?  Although the April 2nd preliminary nuclear accord with Iran lifts many economic sanctions against it, Iran had tried to skirt the sanctions throughout the years.  By recognizing ways Iran may have skirted the sanctions, the judgment creditors might detect money trails.   The judgment creditors would hopefully then be able to follow the money trails by using letters rogatory and other asset recovery tools.  This in turn could bring the judgment creditors closer to collecting on their billion-dollar-plus judgment against Iran.

Discreet Income From The World’s Largest Natural Gas Field?


Qatar sits on the largest natural gas field in the world but it also goes under Iran. This is the South Pars/North Dome natural gas field.  Wikipedia says “[a]ccording to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the field holds an estimated 1,800 trillion cubic feet (51 trillion cubic metres) of in-situ natural gas and some 50 billion barrels (7.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensates.”  Iran reportedly allowed Qatar to develop its gas extraction and marketing but only with Iran’s permission.  Furthermore, nobody checks what Qatar does with its income.

It is therefore possible that Iran circumvented economic sanctions via a quiet and discreet shared income from Qatar.  As discussed last week at a Reuters article, Iran announced it will soon open up 2 additional gas operations in the South Pars Field.  The Tasnim News Agency reported that the 2 new gas operations, (i.e. refineries), should bring Iran $6 billion in annual revenue.

Iran’s Cross-Border Elements In Dubai

Iran’s particular location at the Persian Gulf also helped Iran to evade the sanctions.  In geographical terms, the Persian Gulf is dominated by Iran similar, say, to the U.S. dominating the Carribbean and Gulf of Mexico.  Iran’s geographical location made it easy for Iran to maintain cross-border elements in places like Dubai.  Iran has more companies in Dubai than anywhere else in the world excepting Iran itself.  Dubai additionally has a large expatriate population of Iranian businessmen.  So, similar to Austria during the Cold War, Dubai is a little country busy importing.  As reported at “Iran smuggles in $1 billion of bank notes to skirt sanctions” Iran also engaged in bulk cash smuggling through cash couriers & front companies in Dubai and other locations in or near the Persian Gulf.

First Image: Claudionegri79/Shutterstock.com

Second Image: Courtesy of Wikipedia (Licensed) by Alireza824

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Part 2: An Asset Search Over Terrorism & Airbus Aircraft

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Bank Search, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Swiss Banks

shutterstock_115001698Part 1 of this post discussed the judgment creditors in Havlish v. bin Laden who are are trying to interdict assets owned by Iran.  Part 1 explained the judgment creditors sought to attach monies reportedly earmarked for the purchase of Airbus aircraft. Before seeking the attachment of the monies, the judgment creditors subpoenaed confidential information kept at U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”).  This confidential information could help the judgment creditors search for bank accounts or other assets Iran beneficially owns.

OFAC agreed to release the confidential information after the judgment creditors served OFAC with subpoenas & after the Court issued protective orders restricting the judgment creditors’ use of the information.  Via their subpoena dated March 2, 2015, the judgment creditors first requested confidential information about assets in the U.S. blocked at financial institutions because of economic sanctions against Iran.  This subpoena requested that OFAC provide the judgment creditors with the following:

[a]s of March 2, 2015, a list of all financial institutions holding assets in the United States that are blocked due to a nexus with the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, its political subdivisions, and its agencies and instrumentalities, and the total such assets reported by each such institution, rounded to the nearest $100,000.

The judgment creditors next broadened their asset search by serving a May 17, 2015 subpoena on OFAC.  The May 17th subpoena requested seven categories of information from OFAC regarding: Iran’s financial accounts which had been frozen in Switzerland; financial accounts of Iran’s Mahan Air; financial accounts maintained by the Hezbollah, al Qaeda and Taliban terrorist groups; financial accounts at 3 banks in China; etc.  Click here to view the May 17th subpoena.

Image: Jim Vallee/Shutterstock.com

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Part 1: An Asset Search Over Terrorism & Airbus Aircraft

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Hidden Money

Iran’s Mahan Air is thought to have used intermediaries to conceal ownership & prospective purchases of Airbus aircraft similar to the one shown above.

The Court found Iran was behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks and Iran is therefore liable for the money damages set forth by the October 2012 Order issued at In Re Terrorist Attacks On September 11, 2001, U.S. District Court, SDNY, Index No. 03-MDL-1570. The October Order also applies to Havlish v. bin Laden, U.S. District Court, SDNY, Index No. 03-cv-9848.  Pursuant to the October Order, as of March 2, 2015 Iran owed the judgment creditors from Havlish $1,362,277,844 plus interest.  These judgment creditors seem to be trying to collect part of this sum from the suspected intermediaries of Iran’s Mahan Air.  The suspected intermediaries, (i.e. nominees), include Bahar Safwa General Trading; Ali Abdullah Alhay; and possibly others.

Some of Mahan Air’s suspected nominees may have supplied Wilmington Trust Company of Delaware, with monies earmarked for the purchase of Airbus aircraft.  In an effort to attach any such monies, the judgment creditors served their writ of execution on Wilmington Trust Company.  In pursuance of their search for Iran’s assets, the judgment creditors also served Wilmington Trust Company with a June 26, 15 subpoena demanding documents about alleged efforts to purchase Airbus aircraft.  On July 17th, Wilmington Trust Company objected to the subpoena.  In a July 20th answer to the writ of execution, Wilmington Trust Company indicated it did not possess monies subject to the writ.  The July 20th answer also asserted that Delaware law codified at 10 Del. C. § 3502(b), prevented the attachment of monies directed by the writ.

Meanwhile, Mahan Air has been the subject of sanction programs since 2011, as it is linked to state-sponsored terrorism by Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force & the Hezbollah terrorist group.  Under U.S. Treasury Office of Foreign Asset Control (“OFAC”) sanctions, Mahan Air was “blocked” from purchasing Airbus aircraft which had engines with U.S-made parts; U.S. persons were prohibited from new financial dealings with Mahan Air; etc.  The first 15 minutes of Episode 5 of the SanctionLaw podcast series mentions Mahan Air & the OFAC sanctions.  The Podcast features Sam Cutler who is a policy advisor at Ferrari & Associates, PC.  It also features Michael Burton, a partner at Jacobson Burton Kelley PLLC.   The podcast raises these questions about Mahan Air and its suspected nominees:

  • Had Airbus aircraft owned by Mahan Air been leased to or flown by American Airlines, as discussed by the podcast at 2:17; 2:22; 11:40-11:45?
  • Were U.S.-based companies reckless in business transactions now thought to be related to Mahan Air, given the apparent red flags discussed by the podcast at 8:30-9:10?


Click On The Triangular Button Below To Listen To The Podcast:


Podcast courtesy of SanctionLaw & Sam Cutler
Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Hampering An Asset Search By Hiding Artwork & Cultural Heritage Property

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Hidden Money, Money Laundering
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This bronze Chola statue was reportedly smuggled into the U.S & sold in 2006 with a false provenance.

A July 1, 2015 press release outlines the recovery of a Chola-period bronze statue, by U.S. law enforcement officials.   The press release mentions the 11-12th century Chola statue was stolen & smuggled into the U.S.  The statue was eventually sold with a false provenance to a collector of Asian antiquities.  A false provenance conceals the true chain of title of art or cultural heritage property.  Some therefore use a false provenance to hide their ownership of art or cultural heritage property.  These owners may also rely on third-parties to help hide art assets.

For example, during an asset search of a judgment debtor, a private investigator decided to investigate the judgment debtor’s lawyer.  The investigator suspected the lawyer was helping the judgment debtor hide assets.  The investigator then did “trash pulls” at the lawyer’s home.  During one of many trash pulls, the investigator discovered an envelope bearing the name of a climate-controlled art storage facility.  This discovery led to the interdiction of a valuable painting the judgment debtor hid at the storage facility with the help of the lawyer.

Furthermore, valuable artwork can be hidden by washing it in a money laundering circuit.  Two articles raising this issue are Dr. Doom Warns of Art-World Money Laundering in DavosChinese snap up fine art for use in laundering schemes.  Vaults at foreign banks & freeports are also sometimes used to conceal artwork/cultural heritage property.   Other common concealment methods are described in detail at the March 16, 2015 Asset Search Blog post regarding recovering art assets & cultural heritage property.  The post was written by Leila Aminedoleh, Esq. & covers these talking points:

I.   Forgeries, Illicit Imports & Smuggling
II.  Valuating Art In A Divorce
III. Art Transfers By Terrorists & Other Criminals
IV. Suing Over Art

Image: Courtesy of U.S. Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

An Asset Search When Facing Complex Concealment Schemes

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Divorce & Child Support, Money Laundering, Tax Fraud

shutterstock_78341437 (3)

If someone is hiding assets, you might detect the assets by reviewing: corporate records; patents & trademarks; court papers; U.C.C. filings; real estate documents; or through additional basic research.  “A Low-Cost Asset Search” gives information about how to perform basic research.  Although basic research can lead to a good result, it may not help you identify assets hidden through a complex concealment scheme.

The complex schemes might be facilitated by gatekeepers such as lawyers, accountants, officers, directors, etc.  The following details how a lawyer concealed assets with his organized crime client “Mr. M”, in a money laundering scheme:¹

Complex concealment schemes can among other things, also involve fraudulent asset transfers to third-parties & the placement of assets offshore.  To try to locate assets concealed by such schemes, it may be necessary for you to pursue your legal remedies & retain private investigators.  Legal remedies range from civil proceedings brought to attach bank accounts to employing criminal law tools. “An Asset Search In Geneva” lists these remedies for locating & recovering assets hidden at Swiss banks.  These remedies are not just limited to seeking assets at Swiss banks, as similar remedies are available in many countries around the world.

In addition to the use of legal remedies, private investigators can have an important role in asset search or recovery cases.  An investigator in one asset recovery case is described at the article “Private Investigators: An Asset Search By Pursuing Interviews & Tips.”  It highlights an effort to gather human intelligence about a divorcing husband thought to have hidden marital assets and committed tax fraud.  More articles featuring private investigators are: “An Asset Search In Switzerland”, “Following The Money Trail In Zurich” & “Fighting Financial Fraud At UK Banks.”

¹Case 08012, Courtesy of The Egmont Group

First Image: Davi Sales Batista/Shutterstock.com

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Striking Out During Your Asset Search? Don’t Forget To Look At The Lawyers

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Assets & Narco-Trafficking, Divorce & Child Support, Drug-Related Assets, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Money Laundering

 The TV shanking of fictional lawyer Dan Wachsberger at Breaking Bad’s 54th episode.  In the 53rd episode, Wachsberger hid monies in safety deposit boxes & became a DEA informant.

shutterstock_213220519Say My Name” is the 53rd episode of AMC’s Breaking Bad series & it showed fictional lawyer Dan Wachsberger hiding illicit drug monies in at least nine safety deposit boxes for his clients.  After DEA Special Agents catch Wachsberger hiding monies, he became an informant for the DEA & was held in prison.  In the 54th episode “Gliding Over All”, drug kingpin Walter White then hires a gang of white supremacists to kill Wachsberger along with 9 others held in 3 separate prisons.

How many lawyers in the real world hide their clients’ assets like fictional lawyer Wachsberger had done?  I do not know the answer but speculate it is a relatively small number of lawyers.  Meanwhile, some beneficial owners including divorcing spouses; tax cheats; judgment debtors; narcotraffickers; etc. undoubtedly employ lawyers to hide assets.  These beneficial owners hire their lawyers to act as intermediaries/nominees.  The beneficial owners may then transfer their monies into nominee bank accounts titled in the name of the lawyers or titled in the name of shell companies formed by the lawyers.  When these transfers occur there can be red flags indicating the lawyers were involved.  You can sometimes spot the red flags during: an asset search of a person or business entity; the pretrial discovery phase of a litigation; or other times.

There can also be a variety of red flags indicating that a lawyer might have been employed to wrongfully conceal assets.  For example, one divorcing wife supplied me with copies of letters she found in the marital residence she shared with her husband. The letters were from an offshore lawyer to the husband and they revealed the husband possessed a secret offshore bank account worth millions of dollars.  In yet another ultra-high net worth divorce, the red flags were an informant’s tips.  According to these tips & the corroborating evidence I collected, the divorcing husband and his lawyer laundered assets through offshore bank accounts & other elements located across the globe.

Video: Courtesy of AMC Network Entertainment, LLC

Breaking Bag Image: CarmenKarin/Shutterstock.com

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Prosecuting Offshore Bankers Who Allegedly Help Tax Evaders Hide Assets From The IRS

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Swiss Banks, Tax Fraud, White-Collar Crime Generally

Offshore Accounts Photo1

UPDATE 1-Two more Swiss banks strike deals with U.S. over tax evasion” reported that the U.S. Department of Justice, (“the DOJ”), reached its 22nd agreement with Swiss banks.  A DOJ press release mentions the agreements were pursuant to the Swiss Bank Program.  The Swiss Bank Program “provides a path for Swiss banks to resolve potential criminal [tax] liabilities in the United States,” the press release says.  This program seems to be part of the DOJ’s Offshore Compliance Initiative.  Among other things, the Offshore Compliance Initiative focuses on prosecuting offshore bankers who are suspected of helping tax evaders hide assets from the IRS.  The Offshore Compliance Initiative webpage explains there are open investigations into numerous offshore banks located in Switzerland and elsewhere.  The webpage also says as part of the program, criminal charges were filed between 2008 and 2013 against “over 30 banking professionals.”


The law most frequently used to criminally charge tax evaders in the U.S. is 26 U.S.C. § 7201 (Attempt to evade or defeat tax).   An offshore banker who opens a bank account to help a tax evader hide assets from the IRS, might be charged with conspiracy to commit a tax fraud.  See 18 U.S.C. § 371 (Conspiracy to commit offense or defraud United States).  If prosecutors believe a foreign banker promoted a fraudulent tax scheme, they might also charge him/her with mail fraud (18 U.S.C. § 1341); wire fraud (18 U.S.C. §1343); or other crimes.  Except for mail & wire fraud, the penalties for each offense can be a maximum sentence of five years.  In the case of mail &/or wire fraud, the maximum sentence in most situations may be twenty years.  A judge can direct that a sentence of imprisonment be served concurrently or consecutively.  There can also be large fines, restitution and/or asset forfeiture.


Federal prosecutors follow:

the principle that, ordinarily, the attorney for the government should initiate or recommend Federal prosecution if he/she believes that the person’s conduct constitutes a Federal offense and that the admissible evidence probably will be sufficient to obtain and sustain a conviction.U.S. Dep’t of Justice, United States Attorneys’ Manual 9-27.220 §B Comment (1997).

Furthermore, “when deciding whether to prosecute, the government attorney need not have in hand all the evidence upon which he/she intends to rely at trial: it is sufficient that he/she have a reasonable belief that such evidence will be available and admissible at the time of trial.” Id.  Therefore, an offshore banker should expect to be prosecuted if federal prosecutors believe they can gather legally sufficient evidence demonstrating the offshore banker violated U.S. criminal laws.

Image: Olivier Le Moal/Shutterstock.com

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Divorce & Hidden Money: Searching For Assets By Using An Insider At A Bank

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Bank Search, Divorce & Child Support, Divorce & Hidden Money, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Identity Theft, Illegal Asset Searches, Privacy Laws, Private Investigators

Photo Insider

This is my 21st post in the Divorce & Hidden Money series.  It is also the 8th post in my series describing what private investigators can and cannot do legally when searching for hidden assets.  My July 13th post mentioned private investigators & their clients using law enforcement databases and illegal pretext calls to search for assets.  As a practicing attorney, I am aware of another kind of asset search which would be illegal & this post describes it.  The post provides a hypothetical account which discusses a divorcing wife who hired a private investigator.  The private investigator in this hypothetical account, illegally obtains bank account information from an insider—a teller at a bank located in Nevada.


Even though Ralph was a medical doctor with a thriving private practice, Ralph claimed in his New Jersey divorce that he had a low net worth.  Ralph’s divorcing wife Nancy suspected Ralph had hidden money in anticipation of the divorce.  Nancy gathered documents she obtained during the pretrial discovery phase of the divorce and before.

These documents included copies of Ralph’s: passport, statements for airline frequent flyer miles, phone bills, tax filings and additional financial records.  Nancy gave the documents to Mike, the licensed private investigator Nancy retained to perform an asset search regarding Ralph.  After conducting an investigation for more than a month, Mike told Nancy that Ralph hid monies at offshore banks and at a bank in Nevada.


Mike stated that Ralph secretly maintained about $2.5 million dollars in the offshore bank accounts which were located in high-risk geographical locations known for money laundering.  Ralph had supposedly hidden another $85,000 dollars in the secret bank account in Nevada.  Mike explained to Nancy that he could collect evidence regarding the secret bank accounts by conducting searches at the Nevada and the offshore banks.

Nancy paid Mike over $10,000 dollars for the bank account searches and Mike provided Nancy with an investigative report summarizing his search results.  The report named the offshore banks and the Nevada bank Ralph supposedly used to hide his money.  It supplied the purported secret bank account numbers; account balances and detailed the bank signatory information.

The report meanwhile, never explained the source of Mike’s information/how Mike detected Ralph’s supposed secret bank accounts.  When Nancy asked Mike how he had obtained the information at the report, Mike said the report was completely reliable.  A trusted colleague supplied Ralph’s offshore bank account information, Mike said.  Mike also explained he obtained Ralph’s Nevada bank account information from an “insider”, a teller who worked for the Nevada bank.  According to Mike, the insider used the bank’s computer system to sneak a peek at Ralph’s $85,000 dollar bank account.


Assuming that Mike’s representations to Nancy were true, then the bank teller and Mike could have violated privacy and other U.S. laws.  The two may have conspired to access Ralph’s Nevada bank account information in violation of  18 U.S.C. §1030  (Fraud and related activity in connection with computers).  Another type of case involving an insider at a bank was U.S.A. v. Feliciano, 2:09−cr−00197−NS.  The March 2009 indictment filed in Feliciano, alleged that a bank teller had stolen confidential customer information as part of a bank fraud/identity theft scheme.

First Image: Patrick Brassat/Shutterstock.com

Second image courtesy of Flickr (Licensed) by Tsahi Levent-Levi

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Private Investigators & Their Clients Facing Criminal Prosecution Over Illegal Asset Searches

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Bank Search, Divorce & Child Support, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Illegal Asset Searches, Privacy Laws, Private Investigators

Accusation Photo

This post discusses when federal prosecutors might initiate a criminal prosecution against private investigators and their clients as a consequence of an illegal asset search.  It is the 7th post in my series covering private investigators.

If you are a divorcing spouse; heir under a will; a creditor; etc., you may hire a private investigator to help you search for hidden assets.  Your private investigator might then try to detect assets/discover leads by reviewing: passports; phone records; bank account statements; credit card transactions; tax filings; or other confidential information.  What if your private investigator illegally obtained this confidential information from sources like law enforcement databases in the U.S. or by making illegal pretext calls in the U.S.?

Could federal prosecutors then accuse you of crimes because your private investigator performed this illegal asset search for you?  If you knew that confidential information was going to be illegally obtained, prosecutors might initiate a criminal prosecution against you.  The December 6, 2007 press release issued in U.S.A. vs. Torrella et. al. 3:07-cr-05775 discussed the significance of this element of knowledge.  The press release said that several private investigators had been accused of illegally obtaining confidential information.  The private investigators supposedly wanted “to uncover assets or income” during investigations they performed for their clients.  According to the press release, the U.S. Attorney indicated a willingness to criminally prosecute the clients if the clients knew the ‘information was obtained illegally’:

This indictment alleges that private investigators across the country illegally obtained confidential information and sold it to the clients who hired them,’ said United States Attorney Jeffrey C. Sullivan. ‘This is a very serious matter, the investigation is continuing and it is our intention to go after these ‘clients’ if we can prove that they knew this information was obtained illegally.’

In deciding whether to initiate criminal charges against you, federal prosecutors would also follow “the principle that, ordinarily, the attorney for the government should initiate or recommend Federal prosecution if he/she believes that the person’s conduct constitutes a Federal offense and that the admissible evidence probably will be sufficient to obtain and sustain a conviction.”  U.S. Dep’t of Justice, United States Attorneys’ Manual 9-27.220 §B Comment (1997).

First Image: Jane0606/Shutterstock.com

Second image courtesy of Flickr (Licensed) by Tsahi Levent-Levi

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams

Searching For Assets Hidden At Banks In Multiple Jurisdictions

Posted in Asset Search/Fraud Investigation, Bank Search, Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Estate Assets, Divorce & Child Support, Financial Institutions, Hidden Money, Money Laundering

Multiple Juris Photo

Determined criminals sometimes conceal their illicit cash by laundering it through banks located in multiple jurisdictions.  Criminals are not the only ones concealing assets by using bank accounts in multiple jurisdictions.  Whether you are a divorcing spouse; a creditor in a bankruptcy case; are collecting money owed on a judgment; etc., these ideas may help you search for bank accounts &/or gather legally sufficient evidence about them:

Photo Of Light BulbTHE UNIFORM INTERSTATE DEPOSITIONS AND DISCOVERY ACT (“the UIDDA”)—The UIDDA may apply to your case if you are searching for monies transferred through bank accounts in multiple states in the U.S.  The UIDDA has been codified in N.Y. at CPLR § 3119 & it “provides a streamlined procedure for obtaining disclosure…for use in an action in another state or territory within the United States.” Connors, Practice Commentary, McKinney’s Cons Laws of NY, CPLR § 3119.  Most states in the U.S. have adopted the UIDDA.  This generally makes it easier for you to use subpoenas to depose bank witnesses in multiple states in the U.S.  At these subpoenas, you can also request that the bank witnesses supply copies of the relevant bank account statements; account opening documents & signatory information.

LPhoto Of Light BulbETTERS ROGATORY/FOREIGN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS—Schemes to hide large sums of money often involve parking money offshore in foreign bank accounts.  This money may be transferred offshore by wire transfers; bulk cash smuggling; trade-based money laundering; employing portable valuable commodities like diamonds; etc.  Since the foreign bank witnesses usually reside offshore/lack a nexus to the U.S., you can not compel them to supply bank account information by using a subpoena issued under U.S. laws.  In many countries you can however, employ letters rogatory (a.k.a. letters of request or legal assistance requests).  Letters rogatory are used to try to compel foreign bank witnesses to disclose bank account information.  Besides letters rogatory, there may also be other legal remedies available to you under foreign laws.

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PRIVATE INVESTIGATORS—A highly skilled investigator can sometimes be one of the reasons your asset search or asset recovery succeeds.  Such an investigator will know how to relentlessly dig for information.  One private investigator I know spent 17 years investigating an ultra-high net worth family suspected of concealing more than $100 million dollars in a financial fraud.  A good investigator may also be able to sniff out informant’s tips concerning hidden assets, as suggested by my recent post “An Asset Search By Pursuing Interviews & Tips.”  Finally, additional information about searching for bank account information is available at “5 Things To Be Aware Of When Hiring A PI For A Bank Account Search.”

First image: Spectrumblue/Shutterstock.com.

Second image courtesy of Flickr (Licensed) by One Way Stock

Copyright 2015 Fred L. Abrams